UTF8 BOM(byte order mark)

There are two types of character code, Unicode, which has no BOM and with a BOM. BOM stands for byte order mark, which is a few bytes of data attached to the beginning of Unicode encoded text.

When the program reads text data, it determines from the first few bytes that it is Unicode data and which kind of encoding format is adopted. In the case of UTF-8 with BOM, the first 3 bytes are BOM, and the data is <0xEF 0xBB 0xBF>

Depending on the application such as Microsoft Excel, it may not be possible to determine whether the encoding method is UTF-8, UTF-16, UTF-32, or another different character code unless BOM is added. On the other hand, for HTML files used as web pages, it is better to save / overwrite without BOM. This is because some programs such as PHP that process web pages dynamically can not process text files with BOMs correctly. It can not generally be said that which way is better depending on the situation like this.

The difference between a file with BOM and a file without BOM is the presence or absence of the first 3 bytes, and the contents of other files and the character code (encoding system) are exactly the same. This means that if the encoding method is not correct, it will be displayed normally as a simple text file, so it can be said that it is difficult to notice that the BOM is the cause if the file malfunctions in any program.




「Din 1451 Alt」


「Bebas Neue」

“DIN” is a german font.
Originally, the font was made for industrial use, and it was said that the purpose was to unify the font such as the model number description in the industry to this “DIN”. So, “DIN” is an abbreviation of “Deutches Institut fur Normung” and Deutsches Institut fur Normung is the officcial name of DIN.


font:13px ‘ヒラギノ角ゴPro W3′,’Hiragino Kaku Gothic Pro’,’游ゴシック’,’Yu Gothic’,’游ゴシック体’,’YuGothic’,メイリオ,Meiryo,sans-serif;
color: #000000;
background: #e6e6e6;

なるほど、ヒラギノ角ゴPro W3か。iPhoneと一緒ですね。
ところで、webデザインの大手ってどこでしょう? IMK?


body, input, textarea, select, option, button {
  background: #fff;
  font-family: "Gotham SSm A", "Gotham SSm B", "メイリオ", Meiryo, "ヒラギノ角ゴ Pro W3", "Hiragino Kaku Gothic Pro", Osaka, "MS Pゴシック", "MS PGothic", sans-serif;
  font-style: normal;
  line-height: 1.7;
  color: #000;
  font-size: 14px;

Gotham SSm A???????????????

San-serif Futura

Futura is a Latin-language sans-serif typeface announced by Paul Renner, who worked as a part-time lecturer at the Bauhaus in Germany in 1923. Futura is a Latin word meaning “future”.

Adobe Fonts: Futura

Futura is one of the most popular fonts in the world, and is used in many corporate logs.
A, M, V, Wが非対称で、〇が円になっているとのこと。

– Futura
– Neue Helvetica
– Avenir
– Sackers Gothic
– DIN Next
– Garamond #3
– Trade Gothic
– Neue Frutiger
– VAG Rounded
– Univers


UTF8 and Shift_JIS

-The number of bytes consumed is relatively small.
-Code that can be read on domestic mobile phones.

It is garbled by how to use it.
Since encoded data often contains control characters, they may malfunction or be garbled in environments where they are not assumed.
The character type is about 9000.

The character range is wide and the characters of any contry can not be garbled.
It can be read by default in almost any PC environment.


When it comes to the beginning or end of a line, it is a character that is inappropriate in appearance or hard to read. Typical examples include punctuation marks and parentheses. There are two types of punctuation characters: line beginning and end line punctuation characters. The former refers to characters that are inconvenient to come to the beginning of the line, and the latter refers to characters that do not allow to come to the end of line.




What is an escape sequence (escape character)?

An escape sequence is a special character string that controls character output, such as character color change, cursor movement, and character deletion, when outputting characters on the screen, rather than outputting the characters themselves.

In addition to the information that people can recognize as “character”, information other than “characters” such as control characters and character editing information on the OS is also included a s character information used in the OS. These characters are sometimes called “special characters”. An escape sequence exists for this special character to let people enter characters and tell it to the OS.

Typical escape sequences include the following characters.

\a : bell character(alert)
\b : return one character
\f : page feed(clear)
\n : line feed, return
\r : back to the beginning of the same line
\t : horizontal tab
\v : vertical tab
\\ : show \
\' : single quotation mark
\" : double quotation mark
\0 : null

What is ISO-2022-JP?

ISO-2022-jP is a character encoding system for Japanese characters used on the internet(especially e-mail). It is characterized by being a 7-bit code that switches the character set using the ISO / IEC 2022 escape sequence (the escape sequence of the announcement function is omitted). There are also sometimes called “JIS code”.

SCII letters, kanji for JIS x 2008 etc, can be used, but half size kana characters etc can not be used.

what is “sjis-win”??

When “sjis-win” is specified as character code in PHP, Windows-31J which is Shift_JIS extended by Microsoft.

Windows-31J is a character code based on “JIS X 0208-1990” by microsoft, incorporating some of NEC and IBM’s own extended letters, generally called SJIS “model dependent characters”.

What is difference between SJIS and SJIS-WIN?
sjis-win has more characters.
In frequently used places, the following characters are in sjis-win, but not in sjis.

-circle number(①②③…⑳)
-roman numerals(ⅠⅡⅢ…Ⅹ、ⅰⅱⅲ…ⅹ)
-stock with parentheses(㈱)
-High ladders(髙)

Characters that are in SJIS-WiN but not in SJIS
The following three types
– NEC special character
– NEC selection IBM extended character
– IBM extended letters

fixing a word of fgets regular expression

There is a trouble that it is not goes well at reading one line regular expression.
I would like to code if only one dot contained in a line, issue an alert.

$file = fopen("test.txt", "r");

	while($line = fgets($file)){

		if(preg_match('/^.$/', $line)){
			echo "please write again.<br>";
		} else {
			echo "OK<br>";


Regular expression does not work well in this code.

add half-width dot in the regular expression

	while($line = fgets($file)){

		if(preg_match('/^..$/', $line)){
			echo "please write again.<br>";
		} else {
			echo "OK<br>";


A half-size dot in a regular expression means an arbitrary one character.

Count the number of characters, bytes, width in PHP

How to count the number of characters, number of bytes, character width (apparent length) of a character string in PHP?

1. strlen
function strlen
Generally, to know the number of bytes, use strlen.

$char = 'To die: to sleep No more; and by a sleep to say we end. The heart-ache and the thousand natural shocks. That flesh is heir to, tis a consummation Devoutly to be wishd. ';
echo strlen($char);


2. mb_strlen
function mb_strlen
Also, use mb_strlen to distinguish between full-width and half-width characters and count the number of characters.

$char = '名前(カタカナ)';

echo mb_strlen($char);

3. mb_strwidth
function mb_strwidth
Use mb_strwidth to count character width(apparent length).

$char = 'おはようございます。';

echo mb_strwidth($char);

Let’s put emoji and count it.

$char = 'こんにちは😀';

echo strlen($char);

-> 19
it is as expected.

Then, let’s display an alert if it is more than 10 bytes.

$char = 'こんにちは😀';

// echo strlen($char);
if(strlen($char) > 10){
	echo "this is more than 10 byte, please write again";
} else {
	echo "confirmed.";

-> this is more than 10 byte, please write again

Perfect job, am I.